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Unit costing

Unit costing method (also known as output or single costing) is a type of costing method that calculates the costs per cost unit, i.e. usually per a single product. It is used if the production process is repetitive and only a few types of similar products are manufactured in masses. Examples of

Batch costing

Batch costing is a type of costing method that calculates first the costs per the entire production batch. Unit costs are then calculated as a division of total batch costs by the production quantity. Batch costing method is used if several identical products are manufactured in a single batch wher

Costing by simple division

Costing by simple division is costing method, or rather approach to costing, under which are indirect costs (overheads) allocated to the product by their division, i.e. by the formula: indirect costs / number of units. The method is applicable only if a single product is produced.   When se

Apportionment of common costs to joint products

During the production process can be manufactured at once two or more products. If they are of similar economic importance and none of them is significantly more important than the other, they are so called joint products. But as the production or its part is common, joint costs are incurred and it

Difference between joint and main/by products in common production

In common production process are simultaneously processed two (or more) products. If both products are of similar economic importance, they are JOINT PRODUCTS. But if they are not, one is considered to be MAIN and the second BY-PRODUCT.   And what are the factors to take into account to distin

Explicit costs

Explicit costs are costs that are really incurred by the entity. Opposite to explicit costs are implicit (opportunity) costs.

Process costing

Process costing method is a type of costing method that calculates first the costs per a single (production) process. The method is based on the assumption that the outputs of previous process are the material inputs to the following process. As the result, the costs per a single product are ascerta

Costing method by division using relative numbers

Costing method by division using relative numbers is costing method, or rather approach to costing, under which are indirect costs (overheads) allocated to the product by using a weight factor that is derived from the feature in which the products differ (e.g. size, time necessary for the production

Common (pre-separation) costs in joint and by product costing

Joint costs (also known as common or pre-separation costs) are costs common to the production process during which are simultaneously processed two or more different products. These costs can be assigned to the individual products by using a specific costing methods (see below).   These are

Treatment of joint (common) costs in case of by-products

During the production process can be manufactured at once two or more products. If they are NOT of similar economic importance, then the more important product is called MAIN PRODUCT and the less important product BY-PRODUCT. As by-product´s value is usually negligible, net realizable value

Shut-down costs

Shut-down costs are unavoidable costs which will be incurred even if the production is shut down (e.g. rent which is the entity obliged to pay). 

Differential costs

Differential cost is a difference in costs resulting from adopting different alternatives or costs in different time periods. They are opposites to sunk costs.

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